Disease Burden

Dengue fever is a vector-borne infectious disease commonly found in tropical and sub-tropical areas. According to WHO, 390 million people are infected with dengue virus every year, with 96 million people develop clinical manifestations. The incidence rate continues to climb substantially due to global warming.

Etiopathology

Dengue fever is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitos. There are four serotypes of viruses causing dengue infection: DEN1, DEN2, DEN3, and DEN4. Infection by one serotype results in lifelong immunity and will induce partial and temporary cross-immunity to other serotypes; however, when infecting different serotypes the next time, the risk of developing severe dengue will dramatically increase due to the effect of antibody-dependent enhancement.

Clinical Symptoms

Typical symptoms of dengue include sudden high fevers, severe headaches, muscle and/ or joint pains, nausea, persistent vomiting, rash, long-term fatigues and discomfort. Dengue viruses increase vascular permeability, causing internal bleeding, liver enlargement and abdominal edema. Severe case of dengue infection may lead to progressively worsening low blood pressure (shock), organ failures, and death. The mortality can be over 40% if untreated.

Treatments

Currently, there is no antiviral medication for dengue virus and only supportive cares like fluid implementation, bed rest, and antipyretics available. Patients with dengue fever should seek professional medical advice to receive proper treatment.Please refer to Centers for Disease Control for more information